Coffee intake is associated with low risk of symptomatic gallstone disease (GSD), according to a new study published in the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Researchers looked at 104,493 individuals from the general population, with a mean follow-up of eight years. They also tested whether two genetic variants were associated with higher coffee intake, and tested whether those genetic variants were associated with lower risk of GSD in 114,220 individuals, with a mean follow-up of 38 years.
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They found that individuals with a coffee intake of more than six cups daily had a 23% lower risk of GSD compared to individuals without coffee intake. In genetic analysis, there was a stepwise higher coffee intake of up to 41% in individuals with the highest number of coffee intake alleles verses the lowest, and a corresponding stepwise lower risk of GSD up to 19%.
Estimated observational odds ratio for GSD for a one cup per day higher coffee intake was equal to 3% lower risk.